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Reservation and Quota Systems in India

Domicile Requirements in India
University & College Admissions
What is AICTE?
Types of Colleges in Universities

Reservation and Quota Systems
Though the Article.15(1) of the Constitution says that the “State shall not discriminate any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them”, it also provides for compensatory or protective discrimination in favour of certain sections of the disadvantaged people. Article 15(4) of the Constitution stipulates that notwithstanding the provision stated above, the State can make “special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes”.

Scheduled Castes (SC) and Tribes (STREAM) constitute approximately 22.5% of the country’s population. Accordingly, a pro-rata reservation of 22.5% (SC 15% and ST 7.5%) has been made for them in educational institutions which come under the administrative control of the Ministry of Human Resource Development and other Central Ministries. Similar reservations, directly proportional to their population, have also been provided by the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations. SC and ST students are also entitled to relaxation in respect of the upper age limit (generally 5 years) as well as concession of lower cut-off qualifying marks (5-10%).



Besides reservation for SC and ST Candidates, seats are also reserved for other categories of the backward community (OBC). In 1978, the Second Backward Classes Commission under the Chairmanship of B.P. Mandal (more well-known as the Mandal Commission) was set up. The Commission, which submitted its report in 1980, recommended the reservation of 27% of the seats in all scientific, technical and professional institutions run by the Central as well as State Governments for other backward communities (OBCs).

It further recommended that those States which have already reserved more than 27% seats for OBC students would remain unaffected by this recommendation. The Government of India implemented the recommendations in 1990 leading to violent protests. The Supreme Court had earlier ruled that the total percentage of reservation should not exceed 50% of the seats. While giving its assent to the Government order for implementation of the recommendations of the Mandal commission report, the Supreme Court not only limited overall reservation to 50%, but also inserted an economic exclusion clause under the name of “creamy layer”. It later reiterated its decision of fixing the upper limit while disallowing the pleas of the Governments of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka from increasing the quota beyond 50%.

However, reservation continues to be a controversial social and political issue and has resulted in many protracted legal disputes and multitude of legal interpretations. In August 1999, the Supreme Court ruled that for admissions at the super-speciality level in medicine and engineering faculties, no special provisions like reservations for SCs, STs and BCs were permissible. Even among the quota for reservations, there are also sub-quotas. For example, in Andhra Pradesh, 15% of the seats in each course of study reserved for Scheduled Castes are in turn allotted, in proportion to their population, to four categories of SCs classified as A, B, C and D. Similarly, 25% of the seats reserved for Backward Classes are allocated to four categories of BCs – labelled as A, B, C and D.



The following table reflects the typical caste-based reservation profile:
SC and SC Converts to Buddhism 13.0%
STs 7.0%
Vimukta Jati 3.0%
Nomadic Tribes (NTI) 2.5%
Nomadic Tribes (NT2) 3.5%
Nomadic Tribes (NT3) 2.0%
OBC 19.0%
Total 50.0%


Besides caste based reservations, there are also varieties of reservation and quota system, for example, Non-resident Indians (5%), Women (30%), Physically handicapped, Migrants from J & K, NCC Quota, Sports Quota, Anglo-Indian Community, Children of Political Sufferers, Children of Defence personnel, Children of Ex servicemen, Government of India Nominees.

Minority Institutions
Article 30(1) of the Indian Constitution provides that “all minorities whether based on religion or language shall have the right to establish and administer educational institution of their choice”. Many such institutions have been established by the minority communities in a number of states. According to a Supreme Court ruling in the case St. Stephen’s College vs University of Delhi (AIR 1992 SC 1630) there have to be two categories for admissions in minority educational institutions viz., Category 1-50% of he seats for candidates belonging to the minority community which has established the institution and Category II-50% of the seats for candidates for “communities other than the minority community” which owns the institution. In all States admissions are regulated through the state-level common entrance tests.

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Domicile Requirements in India
University & College Admissions
What is University Grants Commission (UGC)
What is AICTE?
University Stream in India
Types of Universities in India
Types of Colleges in Universities
Indian School System

I think reservation system need a revamp It should be more on financial metrics Read on http://www totaldreamer com/im-new-india-narendra-modi/
Posted by:-Shanu.     On: Sep 21, 2017 - 11:41:52 PM
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I am an Anglo indian ,and they give caste certificate as only Anglo indian and does not fall in selected caste ,how can I claim for reserved quata please give some details of go
Posted by:-david kent.     On: Jun 7, 2017 - 7:50:28 PM
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I just visited your blog/site and thought you made some really great points Very Informative Article…, Kiaan
Posted by:-Kiaan.     On: May 18, 2017 - 12:59:55 PM
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I just visited your blog/site and thought you made some really great points Very Informative Article…, Kiaan
Posted by:-Kiaan.     On: May 18, 2017 - 12:56:31 PM
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I HAVE NCC A&B CERTIFICATES MY JEE MAINS SCORE 206 IN GENERAL CATEGIRY IS IT ANY QUOTA OR ANY RELAXATION
Posted by:-KONURU SHIVA DHANUSH.     On: Apr 5, 2017 - 7:45:16 PM
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Please close the Quota System What is our mistake what is our fault Why are you giving this punishment to us I am form GENERAL CATEGORY Regards PLEASE REPLY
Posted by:-ANUBHAV.     On: Feb 10, 2017 - 12:44:43 PM
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Please close the Quota System What is our mistake what is our fault Why are you giving this punishment to us I am form GENERAL CATEGORY Regards PLEASE REPLY
Posted by:-ANUBHAV.     On: Feb 10, 2017 - 12:44:41 PM
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please confirm the reservation percentage in case of 2A &3B ,THE CASTES COMING UNDER THOSE MENTIONED CATEGORIES AT KARNATAKA STATE LEVEL AND AT CENTRAL FOR BOTH EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT LEVEL
Posted by:-UDAYA SHANKAR.     On: Dec 17, 2016 - 6:50:06 AM
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Sir please I need information about Hindu minority quota in engineering admissionn
Posted by:-Joga.     On: Jun 21, 2016 - 4:06:17 PM
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Please provide me infromation about sports quota marks to be gained in ICSE Board for state level and national level students
Posted by:-MADAN SHARMA.     On: Apr 26, 2016 - 11:49:39 AM
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Any reservation quota for single child girl in Gate exam
Posted by:-Madhura Bhalerao.     On: Apr 6, 2016 - 4:53:46 PM
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sir other state me recruitement hoti h other state wale ki kis cotegy me or kitna percent milta
Posted by:-gemant.     On: Jan 2, 2016 - 1:25:44 PM
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crazy information about the exam
Posted by:-central govt jobs.     On: Nov 10, 2015 - 11:31:29 AM
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is there are reservation available for project affected student for enggineering admission
Posted by:-shital.     On: Sep 20, 2015 - 12:00:14 AM
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i want to kow the christian minority or south minority colleges for mba in india
Posted by:-Anna Jinu.     On: Jul 27, 2015 - 3:15:02 AM
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