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Reservation and Quota Systems in India

Domicile Requirements in India
University & College Admissions
What is AICTE?
Types of Colleges in Universities

Reservation and Quota Systems
Though the Article.15(1) of the Constitution says that the “State shall not discriminate any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them”, it also provides for compensatory or protective discrimination in favour of certain sections of the disadvantaged people. Article 15(4) of the Constitution stipulates that notwithstanding the provision stated above, the State can make “special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes”.

Scheduled Castes (SC) and Tribes (STREAM) constitute approximately 22.5% of the country’s population. Accordingly, a pro-rata reservation of 22.5% (SC 15% and ST 7.5%) has been made for them in educational institutions which come under the administrative control of the Ministry of Human Resource Development and other Central Ministries. Similar reservations, directly proportional to their population, have also been provided by the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations. SC and ST students are also entitled to relaxation in respect of the upper age limit (generally 5 years) as well as concession of lower cut-off qualifying marks (5-10%).

Besides reservation for SC and ST Candidates, seats are also reserved for other categories of the backward community (OBC). In 1978, the Second Backward Classes Commission under the Chairmanship of B.P. Mandal (more well-known as the Mandal Commission) was set up. The Commission, which submitted its report in 1980, recommended the reservation of 27% of the seats in all scientific, technical and professional institutions run by the Central as well as State Governments for other backward communities (OBCs).

It further recommended that those States which have already reserved more than 27% seats for OBC students would remain unaffected by this recommendation. The Government of India implemented the recommendations in 1990 leading to violent protests. The Supreme Court had earlier ruled that the total percentage of reservation should not exceed 50% of the seats. While giving its assent to the Government order for implementation of the recommendations of the Mandal commission report, the Supreme Court not only limited overall reservation to 50%, but also inserted an economic exclusion clause under the name of “creamy layer”. It later reiterated its decision of fixing the upper limit while disallowing the pleas of the Governments of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka from increasing the quota beyond 50%.

However, reservation continues to be a controversial social and political issue and has resulted in many protracted legal disputes and multitude of legal interpretations. In August 1999, the Supreme Court ruled that for admissions at the super-speciality level in medicine and engineering faculties, no special provisions like reservations for SCs, STs and BCs were permissible. Even among the quota for reservations, there are also sub-quotas. For example, in Andhra Pradesh, 15% of the seats in each course of study reserved for Scheduled Castes are in turn allotted, in proportion to their population, to four categories of SCs classified as A, B, C and D. Similarly, 25% of the seats reserved for Backward Classes are allocated to four categories of BCs – labelled as A, B, C and D.

The following table reflects the typical caste-based reservation profile:
SC and SC Converts to Buddhism 13.0%
STs 7.0%
Vimukta Jati 3.0%
Nomadic Tribes (NTI) 2.5%
Nomadic Tribes (NT2) 3.5%
Nomadic Tribes (NT3) 2.0%
OBC 19.0%
Total 50.0%

Besides caste based reservations, there are also varieties of reservation and quota system, for example, Non-resident Indians (5%), Women (30%), Physically handicapped, Migrants from J & K, NCC Quota, Sports Quota, Anglo-Indian Community, Children of Political Sufferers, Children of Defence personnel, Children of Ex servicemen, Government of India Nominees.

Minority Institutions
Article 30(1) of the Indian Constitution provides that “all minorities whether based on religion or language shall have the right to establish and administer educational institution of their choice”. Many such institutions have been established by the minority communities in a number of states. According to a Supreme Court ruling in the case St. Stephen’s College vs University of Delhi (AIR 1992 SC 1630) there have to be two categories for admissions in minority educational institutions viz., Category 1-50% of he seats for candidates belonging to the minority community which has established the institution and Category II-50% of the seats for candidates for “communities other than the minority community” which owns the institution. In all States admissions are regulated through the state-level common entrance tests.

Useful links

Domicile Requirements in India
University & College Admissions
What is University Grants Commission (UGC)
What is AICTE?
University Stream in India
Types of Universities in India
Types of Colleges in Universities
Indian School System

Is any reservation quota in UPSC selection (IAS/IFS/IPS) If so, it is a compromise with quality
Posted by:-B S Sharma.     On: May 12, 2012 - 5:55:36 PM
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Reservations should be based on poverty level but not on the castes Gov should change the system like, it should provide the coaching for the Reservation candidates but not letting them the seats directly, that is callled as RIGHT TO EQUALITY
Posted by:-sharanji.     On: May 7, 2012 - 3:57:11 AM
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u hve any solution fr this?
Posted by:-kritika.     On: Apr 5, 2012 - 11:11:22 PM
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u hve any solution fr this
Posted by:-kritika.     On: Apr 5, 2012 - 11:10:23 PM
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What is the benefits for resident of Union Traitory (UT DAMAN) students in entrance of Medicals & Engineering Or technical education ( Seat reservation)
Posted by:-YASHPAL KESHARI.     On: Mar 31, 2012 - 1:25:17 PM
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there shd not be any reservation quota in the education now (after 2012) i belongs to general quota from a poor family wat wrong i do????????
Posted by:-raja.     On: Mar 22, 2012 - 3:08:12 PM
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Is the reservation for NCC and NSS students
Posted by:-allabout.     On: Feb 15, 2012 - 6:34:17 PM
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Always give first preference to the Sc and ST students only even them family rich also they give best results but OC and BC category background is poor means they give less priority this instruction should ignore by government
Posted by:-Apsira.     On: Feb 15, 2012 - 6:32:02 PM
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is there reservation for ncc candidates in phd admissions in andhra pradesh universities
Posted by:-srinu.     On: Jan 22, 2012 - 1:47:39 PM
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do we have quote in upsc selection ?
Posted by:-saurabh kamble.     On: Jan 12, 2012 - 11:58:29 AM
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is there any reservation quota for ncc c certificate holders in engineering admission?
Posted by:-atharv raghav.     On: Dec 6, 2011 - 4:17:50 PM
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nice article for more information about education visit http://www apsira com
Posted by:-Apsira.     On: Nov 30, 2011 - 10:42:38 AM
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Assam university is not ready toaccept the relaxation on marks for Obc students my e mail id biswajit paul23@yahoo com
Posted by:-Biswajit paul.     On: Nov 25, 2011 - 11:46:40 PM
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Thanks for the information
Posted by:-Prakash.     On: Nov 25, 2011 - 7:32:46 AM
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My name is Biswajit paul and i want a clear information on relaxation of marks and reservation for OBC students in central universities because Assam University is not ready to accept any type of relaxation on OBCcatagories my email id biswajit paul23@yahoo co plz mail me as soon as possible
Posted by:-Biswajit paul.     On: Nov 24, 2011 - 11:57:05 PM
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