Examcrazy Logo
MBA in India CAT How to Prepare for Exams Technical Freshers Jobs
  Follow us|  twitter  Orkut  facebook
Electronics II Tutorials
   Overview Analog Wireless Communcation
   Resistors, Capacitors, RC Networks
   Diodes, Amplitute Modulation, Diode Detection
   RL Circuits, Inductive Kicks, Diode Snubbers
   RC filters. Series resonance and quality factor, Matching, Soldering
   Ladder filters Butterworth and Chebyshev filters Filter tables ADS
   Bandpass ladder filters Quartz crystals
   Impedance inverter
   Ideal Transformers
   Transformer shunt inductance
   BJT-Large signal models
   Transistor switches. Voltage regulators
   Transistor switches. Voltage regulators
   Common emitter amplifier. Max. efficiency of class A amps. Transformer coupled loads
   Available power. Distortion. Emitter degeneration. Miller effect
   Emitter follower and differential amplifiers
   JFET Source follower amplifier
   Oscillators. Clapp oscillator. VFO startup
   Variable frequency oscillator. Gain limiting
   Receiver incremental tuning. Crystal oscillators
   Mixers. Gilbert cell
   Superheterodyne receivers. Spurious responses of mixers
   Decreasing channel bandwidth by using CW
   Audio amplifiers
   JFETs as variable resistors
   Automatic gain control
   Noise, SNR, MDS, noise power density and NEP
   Nyquist noise formula. Cascading noisy components. Noise figure
   Receiver intermodulation and dynamic range
Other Electronics 1 Tutorials
   Diode Tutorials
   BJT Tutorials
   MOSFET Tutorials
   Applied Electromagnetics Tutorials
Free Electronics Tutorials
   Diode Tutorials
   BJT Tutorials
   MOSFET Tutorials
   Electronics II Tutorials
   Applied Electromagnetics Tutorials
   Microwave Tutorials
GATE preparation tips
   GATE Books & How to prepare
   Objective Solving Tricks
   Other GATE links
   IES exam preparation
   All about DRDO-SET
More Engineering Links
   Directory of coaching Institutes
   Govt engg college rankings
   Private engg college rankings
   Admission notifications for Mtech/PhD
   All Engineering Colleges in India
Decreasing Channel Bandwidth by Using CW Key Clicks

Decreasing Channel Bandwidth by Using CW Key Clicks
The text has previously mentioned that it’s important for the transmitter not to turn on or off too quickly. For example, C56 in the Driver Amplifier is used to gradually turn off the transmitter:

In this lecture, we will see that by gradually turning off (and on) the transmitter, much less bandwidth is required for each CW “channel.” (A channel is the contiguous frequency spectrum needed for clear communications.) To understand this, first consider transmitter pulses with no rise or fall time:

This waveform is really the time domain product of the high frequency carrier
Vc( t) = 2cos(?t) V
and a pulse train of frequency fk. From equation (B.22) with Vm = 1, the Fourier series expansion of this keying waveform is

Multiplying these last two equations and simplifying gives:

Now, let’s compute the average power contained in each frequency harmonic. Using P = |V|2 / (2R) , normalizing to R = 1? and defining f = fc ± nfk where fc is the carrier frequency:

A plot of this spectrum is shown in
The FCC requires that for QRP transmitters (those 5 W and less), the spurious radiation must be ? 30 dB below the carrier (dBc).
However, for keying transmitters such as the NorCal 40A, there are many spurious components. While most, or all, of them may be reduced 30 dB from the carrier, the sum of these may cause a problem for another person’s receiver. Consequently, for keying-type “sidebands” a more appropriate transmitter specification is the channel bandwidth required so that the average power contained in all frequency components outside of the channel is 30 dB below the carrier. This quantity can be easily computed. From (12.31), the total average power (computed in the frequency domain) is:

where n is an odd and positive integer. The extra factor of 2 accounts for the average power in both the upper and lower sidebands. Simplifying gives

Imagine that harmonics up to and including n are needed for the channel. Then p, which we’ll define as the total average power in HO harmonics relative to the carrier for either the upper or lower sideband, is

There is no additional factor of 2 here since we’re looking only at one sideband. If n is large, we can evaluate p with the approximation:

The factor of one-half is present in this expression since we have only odd harmonics in the keying waveform [see (12.30)]. From (12.35), we find that

This result allows us to approximately compute the number of harmonics needed for one sideband of a keying waveform so that the average power contained outside the channel relative to the carrier is p. For example, imagine we wish to determine the number of keying harmonics (i.e., the channel width) required so that the total average power transmitted outside this channel is 30 dB smaller than that transmitted within the channel. Then,
p = ?30 dBc = 0.001? n =101
using (12.36). If we next assume a 10-Hz keying rhythm, then the bandwidth needed for this communication channel is
BW=2.101 harmonics .10 Hz /harmo c?2kHz.
This is a pretty large bandwidth and it’s needed if we require that the keying waveform rise and fall instantaneously. (For comparison 2 kHz is the BW needed for a SSB voice channel.)
Decreasing Channel Bandwidth for CW
The BW required for a CW channel can be greatly reduced (?10x) by introducing a rise and fall time to the transmitter keying pulses:

This waveform is the product of carrier and keying waveforms. However, the Fourier series expansion of this waveform is more complicated than the one we considered earlier (? = 0). Your text has a clever method for computing the average power in the harmonics using the RC network in

From this circuit

where ? = RC and n is the keying-harmonic number. Your text uses this frequency response as well as the carrier waveform to solve for the average power outside the channel relative to the carrier to be

For p = -30 dBc as before

Some commercial transmitters use ? = 3 ms. Then with fk = 10 Hz this gives n ?10 harmonics
BW =2.10 harmonics 10 Hz 200/harmonic=200 Hz
This is the BW per channel needed for CW communications when the keying waveform has rise and fall times equal to 3 ms. This BW is 10x smaller than without the rise and fall characteristic. A huge improvement.
Key Clicks
The IF Filter BW in the NorCal 40A is approximately 400 Hz. Consequently, a 200-Hz CW channel can easily pass through without significant distortion. A roughly 200-Hz channel is common for CW communications. Operators will space themselves a few hundred Hz more than this from other CW “QSO’s” to avoid interference. However, if there is a transmitter turning on and/or off too quickly, operators on nearby frequencies will hear clicking sounds that will interfere with their QSO. These are called key clicks. In Prob. 30, you will measure the output signal produced by your NorCal 40A when it is transmitting. This output will have the smoothed keying waveform shown earlier in this lecture:

Previously in this course, we have characterized the rise and fall times of waveforms in terms of the time t2. This works only for exponential waveforms. In the case of non-exponential waveforms, such as the keying waveform above, it is customary to use different definitions of rise and fall times:
• The rise time in terms of t10 ?90 : the time it takes themodulated waveform to go from 10% to 90% of its final value, and
• The fall time in terms of t90 ?10 : the time it takes the modulated waveform to go from 90% to 10% of its initialvalue.

Discuss about MOSFET here
Discussion Board for MOSFET
You can discuss all your issues on MOSFET here
Thread / Thread Starter Last Post Replies Views
fourier transform
plz send me the notes for fourier transforms its very urgent.

Posted By :-
Aug 31, 12:14:03 PM 0 68781
Fourier Transform
Sir I want tutorial on Fourier Transform.........

Posted By :-
Jul 15, 3:24:49 PM 0 72269
fourier transform
sir i want tutorial on fourier transform

Posted By :-
Jul 11, 10:08:19 AM 0 68046
match filter
heloo sir ,i want a tutorial for match filter.plz send it as soon as possible it is very urgent.

Posted By :-
Jun 4, 2:25:18 AM 0 89730
Electic circuits
I want lecture notes for single phase ac & 3phase ac circuits

Posted By :-
May 21, 11:32:46 AM 1 115837
electro statics
what is the work done to move a charge? derive an expression for assembling a configuration of point charges

Posted By :-
May 12, 8:28:18 AM 0 68224
electromagnetic waves
i want lcr circiut teorems derivations

Posted By :-
May 12, 8:23:58 AM 0 66973
i want oscillator frequency derivations for all. plz let me know from where i can get that

Posted By :-
May 4, 5:21:01 PM 0 68474
Equivalent circuit Models
I've got a question in one of my revision papers,

Explain the advantages of representing a transistor by means of an equivalent circuit circuit model

The only thing i can remember is that you can take complex circuits and break them down into simpler circuits which are easier to understand,

Is this the only advantage or do you have any more?

Please help!

Posted By :-
Apr 12, 6:33:57 PM 2 148056
temperature Vs reverse satuation current
I want to know the variation of reverse saturation current with the increase in temperature for both germanium and silicon diodes

Posted By :-
Jan 28, 7:17:23 PM 0 74100
communication system
analog and digital communication system, fiber optic communication, telecommunication technique and application, mobile communication

Posted By :-
Dec 17, 10:38:27 AM 0 80408

Posted By :-
Dec 14, 3:29:22 PM 0 80802
coaching in ies in indore
what about coaching

Posted By :-
Dec 7, 5:27:52 PM 0 85044

To start your new thread you must login here.
New user signup at ExamCrazy.com Exam Crazy
To reply/post a comment you need to login, Use your user name and password to login if you are already registered else register here

(Members Login)

  About us | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Contact us | Email: support@Examcrazy.com  
Copyright © 2014 Extreme Testing House, India. All rights reserved.  388