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MOSFET Tutorials
   Enhancement Type MOSFET Operation, P-Channel, and CMOS
   MOSFET Circuit Symbols, iD-vDS Characteristics
   MOSFET as an Amplifier. Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Models
   MOSFET Small-Signal Amplifier Examples
   Biasing MOSFET Amplifiers. MOSFET Current Mirrors
   Biasing MOSFET Amplifiers. MOSFET Current Mirrors
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   Common Source Amplifier with Source Degeneration.
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   MOSFET Common Gate Amplifier
   CMOS Common Gate Amplifier
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MOSFET Circuit Symbols

MOSFET Circuit Symbols,
iD-vDS Characteristics.
There are two circuit symbols you may encounter for the enhancement type MOSFET. For the n-channel, one symbol is

Referring to this circuit symbol:
The arrowed terminal indicates the source,
This arrow direction indicates n-type (direction of current)
The gap at the gate indicates the oxide layer.
However, the body is often connected to the source. This leads to a more common circuit symbol:

Similar circuit symbols are used for p-channel enhancement type

MOSFET iD–vDS Characteristics
Similar to a BJT, we can generate a set of iD–vDS characteristic curves for a MOSFET by setting vGS and varying vDS. This is shown in Fig. 4.11 for an n-type MOSFET:

There are three regions of operation:
(1) Cutoff. To operate an enhancement type MOSFET, we first must induce the channel. For NMOS, this means that vGD= Vt (induce) If vGS < Vt there is no channel and the device is cutoff, which we see in When the MOSFET is cutoff, iD = iS = 0.
2) Triode. To operate in this mode, we first must induce the channel as in (1) above. We must also keep vDS small enough so the channel is continuous (not pinched off): VGD >Vt
[Note how similar this last criterion is to VGD >Vt for the channel to be induced. Here in (2), we have VGD >Vt for a continuous channel at the drain end. This observation can help us to remember these criterion.] Another way of writing this criterion in (2) is in terms of vDS. Referring to this circuit element

we see that
For a continuous channel, as required by (2), (3) becomesv
We can use either (2) or (4) to check for triode operation of the MOSFET. As given in the last lecture, in the triode region
where rDS is defined as the (linear) resistance between the drain and source terminals. The value of rDS is controlled by vGS.
(3) Saturation. To operate in this mode we need to first induce the channel
VGS³ Vt(pinch off)
then ensure that the channel is pinched off at the drain end
VGS³ Vt(pinch off)
or equivalently
VGS³VGS(inch off)
As we saw in the previous lecture, the drain current in this region is

and is not dependent on vDS. A plot of iD versus vGS for an enhancement type NMOS device in saturation is shown in

In the saturation mode, this device behaves as an ideal current source controlled by vGS:

In reality, though, there is a finite output resistance (ro) that should be added to this model:


This finite output resistance gives a slope to the iD–vDS characteristic curves:

Example N26.1 (similar to text exercise 4.4). Given an enhancement type NMOS with Vt = 2 V.

Determine the region of operation of this device for the following VD. Use these criteria for the region of operation:
Cutoff: VGS>Vt
Triode: V GS³ V t and V DSGS-Vt
Saturation : VGS³ Vtand VDS³ VGS-Vt

Example N26.2 (similar to text problem 4.16). An NMOS enhancement type MOSFET has Vt = 2 V. If VGS ranges from 2.5 to 5 V what is the largest VDS for which the channel remains continuous?

V GS > V t, V GS . so the channel is always present. Then for the channel to remain open at the drain end, V DS< V GS - V t (triode) Which VGS to use here? The smallest. Therefore, V DS| max < 2.5-2= 0.5 V

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