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Resistors_Capacitors_RC Networks. Arbitrary Waveform Generator
There are six basic discrete components used in the NorCal 40A:
# Component Discussed 1 Resistors Ch. 2 2 Capacitors Ch. 2 3 Inductors Ch. 2 4 Diodes Ch. 2 5 Quartz crystals Ch. 5 6 Transistors Ch. 8
Each of these will be discussed separately below.
• Read and review Sec. 2.1, “Resistors”.
• Memorize the color band chart in Fig. 2.2. This will be tested on exams. (Inductors use the same band colors.)
Power dissipated in resistors:
P(t ) =V (t ) I (t ) [W]
This result is always true. There are, however, two important special cases:
1. At dc: P =VI [W]
2. For sinusoidal steady-state signals, the time average power Pa is

where Vp and Ip are peak voltages. In the lab, it is convenient to work with peak-to-peak sinusoidal voltages on the oscilloscope. Then,

where Vpp and Ipp are peak-to-peak (p-t-p) quantities. The time average power dissipated in a resistor R with a sinusoidal voltage Vpp is then

Other review items in Ch. 2:
• Review Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits in Sect. 2.2.
• Review resistive voltage divider circuits in Sect. 2.3.
• Review Thévenin (“look back”) resistance in Sect. 2.4.
• Read and review Sec. 2.5 “Capacitors”. Capacitors can also be used in voltage divider circuits. From

After attaching the battery
Q1(t)-C1Vt and Q2(t)-C2V2(t)
Since Qt=∫ I(t)dt and I1(t)=I2(t), Then Q1(t)=Q2(t).
Now, as t ? ? (i.e., waiting until all capacitors are fully charged) and using KVL:


Dividing (6) by (5) gives

This is a voltage division equation that is useful in Prob. 3 when modeling the behavior of a high-impedance scope probe. It is very important for an electrical engineer to understand how such probes work and how they alter the circuit to which they are attached.
Notice in (7) that as C1 increases, so does V. This is opposite to the effect that occurs with resistive divider networks. Why does this happen? Because with Q1 = C1V1 , then as C1 increases, then V1 decreases assuming all other things equal. With a smaller voltage drop across C1, then V = V2 must increase. Of course, not all other “things” remain equal because I will change. However, I is the same through both capacitors. These capacitors store charge and through the electrostatic force, F = qE , they also store electrical energy, We(t) = E(t). (Note that E here is not the electric field.)

Now, noting again that Q = CV and differentiating this expression with respect to (wrt) time gives

Look at the terms on the right-hand side:
• dQ/dt is the conduction current in the leads of the capacitor,
• C= dV/dt is Maxwell’s displacement current in the capacitor. Consequently, (8) reads

There are two types of current! Both are used in electrical circuits and are equal to each other in a capacitor. Neat! Finally, as shown in the text

RC Delay Circuit
Connecting R and C elements together in series can be used to make a time delay circuit, as you’ll see in Prob. 3. The delay time is ? RC =? . (This is a new interpretation for an old friend.) To see this, consider the following series RC circuit:

In the lab, we’ll use a square wave from the Agilent Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG). The analysis of this circuit response is developed in Section 2.7 – something you’ve likely seen many times before. The result is:

where ? = RC. t2 is the time for the waveform to decay to ½ of its initial value. In the lab, t2 is much easier to measure than ?. It’s simple to show that
Therefore, after measuring t2, then

The overall result is that we can view the output voltage as a pulse that has been “delayed” by a time ? t2 ?? , as shown in the figure below.

Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG)
The function generators you’ve used before may not have had a display on them indicating the amplitude or peak-to-peak voltages. The Agilent 33120A AWGs in the lab have a display that shows frequency and other quantities of interest. Additionally, the display shows the amplitude (peak) of the output voltage, but only if the output is terminated in 50 ?. If the AWG “sees” a different impedance when connected to your circuit, then the output voltage will be different that what’s shown on the display. You should measure this voltage using a scope.
Here is a useful model of the AWG (a Thévenin equivalent):

where Vd is the voltage displayed on the AWG. Some special cases for the voltages in this circuit are:

In the lab, just use a Thévenin model as discussed in Section 2.2

Disconnect the AWG from the circuit and measure the open circuit voltage. Adjust to the desired voltage.

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