Networks. Arbitrary Waveform Generator
There are six basic discrete components used in the NorCal 40A:
# Component Discussed
1 Resistors Ch. 2
2 Capacitors Ch. 2
3 Inductors Ch. 2
4 Diodes Ch. 2
5 Quartz crystals Ch. 5
6 Transistors Ch. 8
Each of these will be discussed separately below. Resistors
• Read and review Sec. 2.1, “Resistors”.
• Memorize the color band chart in Fig. 2.2. This will be tested
on exams. (Inductors use the same band colors.)
Power dissipated in resistors:
P(t ) =V (t ) I (t ) [W]
This result is always true. There are, however, two important
1. At dc: P =VI [W]
2. For sinusoidal steady-state signals, the time average
power Pa is
where Vp and Ip are peak voltages. In the lab, it is convenient to work with peak-to-peak sinusoidal voltages on the oscilloscope. Then,
where Vpp and Ipp are peak-to-peak (p-t-p) quantities.
The time average power dissipated in a resistor R with a
sinusoidal voltage Vpp is then
Other review items in Ch. 2:
• Review Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits in Sect. 2.2.
• Review resistive voltage divider circuits in Sect. 2.3.
• Review Thévenin (“look back”) resistance in Sect. 2.4. Capacitors
• Read and review Sec. 2.5 “Capacitors”.
Capacitors can also be used in voltage divider circuits. From
After attaching the battery
Since Qt=∫ I(t)dt and I1(t)=I2(t),
Now, as t ? ? (i.e., waiting until all capacitors are fully
charged) and using KVL:
Dividing (6) by (5) gives
This is a voltage division equation that is useful in Prob. 3 when
modeling the behavior of a high-impedance scope probe. It is
very important for an electrical engineer to understand how such
probes work and how they alter the circuit to which they are
Notice in (7) that as C1 increases, so does V. This is opposite to
the effect that occurs with resistive divider networks.
Why does this happen? Because with Q1 = C1V1 , then as C1
increases, then V1 decreases assuming all other things equal.
With a smaller voltage drop across C1, then V = V2 must
increase. Of course, not all other “things” remain equal because
I will change. However, I is the same through both capacitors.
These capacitors store charge and through the electrostatic force,
F = qE , they also store electrical energy, We(t) = E(t). (Note that E here is not the electric field.)
Now, noting again that Q = CV and differentiating this
expression with respect to (wrt) time gives
Look at the terms on the right-hand side:
• dQ/dt is the conduction current in the leads of the capacitor,
• C= dV/dt is Maxwell’s displacement current in the capacitor.
Consequently, (8) reads
There are two types of current! Both are used in electrical
circuits and are equal to each other in a capacitor. Neat!
Finally, as shown in the text
RC Delay Circuit
Connecting R and C elements together in series can be used to
make a time delay circuit, as you’ll see in Prob. 3. The delay
time is ? RC =? . (This is a new interpretation for an old friend.) To see this, consider the following series RC circuit:
In the lab, we’ll use a square wave from the Agilent Arbitrary
Waveform Generator (AWG). The analysis of this circuit response is developed in Section 2.7 – something you’ve likely seen many times before. The result is:
where ? = RC. t2 is the time for the waveform to decay to ½ of
its initial value. In the lab, t2 is much easier to measure than ?.
It’s simple to show that
Therefore, after measuring t2, then
The overall result is that we can view the output voltage as a
pulse that has been “delayed” by a time ? t2 ?? , as shown in the figure below.
Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG)
The function generators you’ve used before may not have had a
display on them indicating the amplitude or peak-to-peak
voltages. The Agilent 33120A AWGs in the lab have a display that shows frequency and other quantities of interest. Additionally, the display shows the amplitude (peak) of the output voltage, but only if the output is terminated in 50 ?.
If the AWG “sees” a different impedance when connected to
your circuit, then the output voltage will be different that what’s
shown on the display. You should measure this voltage using a
Here is a useful model of the AWG (a Thévenin equivalent):
where Vd is the voltage displayed on the AWG. Some special
cases for the voltages in this circuit are:
In the lab, just use a Thévenin model as discussed in Section 2.2
Disconnect the AWG from the circuit and measure the open
circuit voltage. Adjust to the desired voltage.