Promoting energy efficiency and conservation
By Prof Sunil Kumar, Electrical Engineering, IEC College, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh
The increasing economic authority has raised the energy demand. The rising demand with shortfall in supply has increased the cost of energy. Rise in demand has created pressure on oil, coal and wind. At present we gave economically recoverable reserve of 530 million tones of oil which shall last for 17 years considering the present patter of, consumption of 30 million tones per annum. It has been projected that by the beginning of this century, we shall be requiring about 500 MMT of coal, 10.5 MMT of petroleum products and 108000MW power. Even with a low per capital consumption, India energy requirements are higher comparing the available resources.
Conventional energy resources are limited. They are expected to last only for coal-245 year, and National gas-38 years. Considering the energy crises hi the near future, along with other major steps are required to be taken for “Energy efficiency”, “Energy conservation” and “Energy auditing.”
GLOBAL ENERGY SCENARIO
During the period 1982-1991, primary energy requirement of the world has gradually increased from 6.3 billion tones of oil-equivalent in 1982 to 7.87 in 1990. Out of this, coal 28% and nuclear, renewable and other energy source 10%. Based in the present trend of Energy consumption of different energy sources have been forecast as given in the following table.
Table 1: Global Energy Forecast (in billion tones of oil equivalent)
|Fuel Type||Actual forecast for the years|
The above data clearly that oil & natural Gas together, having 62% of contribution in 1990, will continue to have dominant rule with 61.6% share in world energy demand in the year 2020.
ENERGY POSITION IN INDIA
In India, energy is consumed in variety of forms like Fuel, Animal-Waste and agricultural residue is traditional sources of non-commercial energy that continue to meet the bulk of energy requirement in rural areas. The non-commercial energy fuels are getting replaced by commercial fuels like Coal, Petroleum products and electricity. Today energy balance in India constitutes 55% commercial and 45% non-commercial energy. Energy policy division of the planning commission, conducted tile survey for Regional Development Energy Programme (REPD) has projected sectoral energy demand for the year 2009-2010.
TABLE 2: TOTAL ENERGY DEMAND (Fig, in million tones equivalent of oil)
Table 3: Commercial Energy Requirement (Fig. in billion tones equivalent of oil)
|Coal & lignite||47.2(35.7)||69.7(36.0)||94.6(37.8)||121.9(37.8)|
It also depicts that the demand has been increasing and with objective for economic of India, the demand will increase at higher race which can only be compensated by three fold strategies such as improvement in design of the system requiring lesser energy i.e. energy requirement with the help of continuous energy auditing and massive use of renewable resources of energy.
Table4 Indian Energy Position(1992-1998)
ENERGY DEMAND IN INDIA:
Total installed capacity 93250 MW
Shortage: 11.5% (Normal) and 18% (Peak)
|Demand Forecast||Needded Capacity|
By 2020, the projected install-capacity requirement is 385000 MW. Forecast of additional capacity by 2011-12 is around 140000 MW.
Concept of water efficiency began in 1970s, in response to the first oil-shock when U.S. wakes up to economic importance of energy. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act, 1975 (of U.S.) established fuel economic standard of car. Energy conservative proceeded more happily hi the US than in most parts of world. Many innovative approaches were taken up in US such Demand side management (DSM), Performance Contracting and Shared Savings.
Why Energy Efficiency (EF) is required at faster rate in India? Answer is:
But India has still to obtain good marketing status for EF. The reasons are:
PROMOTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY :