Energy Efficiency & Conservation

Promoting energy efficiency and conservation
By Prof Sunil Kumar, Electrical Engineering, IEC College, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh



The increasing economic authority has raised the energy demand. The rising demand with shortfall in supply has increased the cost of energy. Rise in demand has created pressure on oil, coal and wind. At present we gave economically recoverable reserve of 530 million tones of oil which shall last for 17 years considering the present patter of, consumption of 30 million tones per annum. It has been projected that by the beginning of this century, we shall be requiring about 500 MMT of coal, 10.5 MMT of petroleum products and 108000MW power. Even with a low per capital consumption, India energy requirements are higher comparing the available resources.
Conventional energy resources are limited. They are expected to last only for coal-245 year, and National gas-38 years. Considering the energy crises hi the near future, along with other major steps are required to be taken for “Energy efficiency”, “Energy conservation” and “Energy auditing.”


During the period 1982-1991, primary energy requirement of the world has gradually increased from 6.3 billion tones of oil-equivalent in 1982 to 7.87 in 1990. Out of this, coal 28% and nuclear, renewable and other energy source 10%. Based in the present trend of Energy consumption of different energy sources have been forecast as given in the following table.

Table 1: Global Energy Forecast (in billion tones of oil equivalent)

Fuel Type Actual forecast for the years
  1990 2000 2010 2020
Oil 3.01 3-27 3.2 3.70
Natural Gases 1.74 2.76 3.73 4.70
Coal 12.19 2.66 2.81 2.99
Nuclear &Renewable 0.76 1.08 1.39 1.98
Total 7.79 9.77 11.45 12.94

The above data clearly that oil & natural Gas together, having 62% of contribution in 1990, will continue to have dominant rule with 61.6% share in world energy demand in the year 2020.


In India, energy is consumed in variety of forms like Fuel, Animal-Waste and agricultural residue is traditional sources of non-commercial energy that continue to meet the bulk of energy requirement in rural areas. The non-commercial energy fuels are getting replaced by commercial fuels like Coal, Petroleum products and electricity. Today energy balance in India constitutes 55% commercial and 45% non-commercial energy. Energy policy division of the planning commission, conducted tile survey for Regional Development Energy Programme (REPD) has projected sectoral energy demand for the year 2009-2010.

TABLE 2: TOTAL ENERGY DEMAND (Fig, in million tones equivalent of oil)

Type 1994-95 1999-2000 2004-05 2009-10
Commercial 13.2(53.3) 118.7(61.6) 205.6(71.3) 332.1(79-4)
Non-Commercial 115.7(46.5) 1174(38.4) 102.8(28.7) 83.6(23.6)
Total 247.96 306.1 358.4 405.7

Table 3: Commercial Energy Requirement (Fig. in billion tones equivalent of oil)

Type 1994-95 1999-00(%) 2004-05(%) 2009-10(%)
Coal & lignite 47.2(35.7) 69.7(36.0) 94.6(37.8) 121.9(37.8)
Hydrocarbon 63.7(48.2) 90.1(47.7) 117.4(45.9) 143.7(44.6)
Electricity 21.3(16.1) 30.7(16.3) 43.6(17.1) 56.5(17.6)
Total Commercial 132.26 188.7 255.6 322.0

It also depicts that the demand has been increasing and with objective for economic of India, the demand will increase at higher race which can only be compensated by three fold strategies such as improvement in design of the system requiring lesser energy i.e. energy requirement with the help of continuous energy auditing and massive use of renewable resources of energy.

Table4 Indian Energy Position(1992-1998)

Year Requirement Availability Shortage Shortage(%)
1992-93 305266 279284 25442 8.30
1993-94 323252 299494 23758 7.30
1994-95 352260 327281 24979 7.10
1995-96 389721 354045 35676 9.20
1996-97 413490 365900 47950 11.50
1997-98 424505 390330 34175 8.10

Total installed capacity 93250 MW
Shortage: 11.5% (Normal) and 18% (Peak)

  Demand Forecast Needded Capacity
By 2011-12 176650MW 235000MW

By 2020, the projected install-capacity requirement is 385000 MW. Forecast of additional capacity by 2011-12 is around 140000 MW.

Concept of water efficiency began in 1970s, in response to the first oil-shock when U.S. wakes up to economic importance of energy. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act, 1975 (of U.S.) established fuel economic standard of car. Energy conservative proceeded more happily hi the US than in most parts of world. Many innovative approaches were taken up in US such Demand side management (DSM), Performance Contracting and Shared Savings.
Why Energy Efficiency (EF) is required at faster rate in India? Answer is:

  • EF is cheaper than capacity addition
  • Helps improve supply rehabilitee
  • Avoid high T&D losses
  • Perfect Environment
  • Conserve scarce resources

But India has still to obtain good marketing status for EF. The reasons are:

  • Distorted price signals: tariff, non-institutional environment costs, poor revenue collection and ineffective metering.
  • Insufficient Information: equipment performance, adequate knowledge and training.
  • Non-Availability of Technology: High fiscal tariffs, insufficient R&D
  • Storage of Capita: smaller size of projects, perceived risks.


  1. Public policy Intervention. This may be a good approach for increasing Energy Efficiency By:
    • Improve minimum energy efficiency standards/norms
    • Introduce actions through regulations such as tariff rationalization, mandatory energy audit, demand side management etc.
    • Develop best practice government procurement Program.
    • Information complain/marketing for EF
    • Technology promotion
    • Training, Certification of energy service providers
  2. Marketing transformation actions:
    • Enhance consumer awareness.
    • Introduce appliance labeling scheme.
    • Strengthen financing mechanism.
    • Establish business promotion programmers.

    DSM is a systematic strategy implemented by utilities to effectively manage the timing and amount of electricity demanded by customer. By this the shortfall during peak demand hour is met up. DSM is closely linked with supply side additions ill tile planning process. So Integrated Resources Planning (IRP) is done. Again, load management is also a vital sector. Load management is be achieved by changing time of end-use, applying varying tariff rates at different duration.
    Energy Efficiency (EF) improvements is also achieved by energy auditing, provision for incentives etc. US experience say that 2-3% revenue were spent oil DSM (in 1993, $2.8 billion to save 25MW). Thailand in 1991, formally approved a countrywide DSM program. Five year plan’s DSM investment of $189 expected to save 225MW. In India, a DSM pilot program was launched by USAID at Ahmedabad Electricity Company (AEC) in 1995. This program gave encouraging results and then this was launched for tow other cities. The result in Ahmedanad was.
    1. Reduction in peak electricity demand by 11%.
    2. Saving in energy costs for water-pumping.
    3. Reduced CO2 emission by 4650 tones.

    Japan has fixed up EF Target for 1997-2000.
    • Car’s energy efficiency – 21%
    • Air-conditions is EF (cooling)-14%
    • A/c’s EF (heating & cooling) -63%
    • Lighting system EF – 16%
    • Copier’EF – 30%
    • Computer’s EF – 78%

    The above dates are taken from the Japan Energy Corporation Handbook, 1997.
    • Lack of direction, thi-ust and accountability for conservation.
    • Ignorance and lack of awareness.
    • Inhibition to adopt new process and technology.
    • Insensitiveness of coal, power cuts and peculiar working conditions.
    • Poor quality of coal, Power cuts and peculiar working conditions.

    Energy conservation shall be part of any economic programme and shall be taken up on continuous basis by efficient energy auditing, increasing energy efficiency, and upgrading the technologies. Need of the hour is to sensitize the top management about the need of energy efficiency. This is the vital field which require greater attention in India considering the role of India in global economic scenario.
    1. Energy for 90s and beyond: Prospects, Reality and Challenge, IMCWEC’ 94 International Conference on Energy,p-4 to 8
    2. EECV 99 Anna University
    3. International conference and Exhibition on Global Power Requirement for 21st Century with special Emphasis to Developing nations-Nov,29-Dec,01, 1999 by I.E. (I) & M.P.E.B.